Elena Martín. English teacher at IES Jorge Guillén (Alcorcón)

MODAL VERBS

SOME GENERAL INFORMATION THAT YOU HAVE TO REMEMBER:

  • THEY DO NOT CHANGE
  • THEY DO NOT NEED AN AUXILIARY VERB
  • THEY  MUST BE USED WITH ANOTHER VERB

CAN

It is used to express ability, some examples:

I can speak five languages. (Puedo hablar cinco idiomas.)

Bill and Tom can’t help you. (Bill y Tom no pueden ayudarte.)

Can you ride a bike? (¿Puedes montar en bici?)

MUST

It is used to talk about obligation 

You must brush your teeth two times a day. (Tienes que cepillarte los dientes dos veces al día.)

MUSTN’T

It expresses prohibition

You mustn’t drink and drive. (No debes beber y conducir.)

SHOULD

It is used to give advice (dar consejo):

You should study harder (Deberías estudiar más)

The stuudents shouldn’t speak so loud (Los estudiantes no deberían hablar tan alto)

NOW SOME EXERCISES

MIXED MODALS I

MIXED MODALS II

My 2º bachillerato students are doing some research on certain aspects of the US, they’re doing a great job.

You can have a look at their presentations below!

HOLLYWOOD INDUSTRY

 

 

 

 

LGBT RIGHTSLGBT RIGHTS

 

 

 

 

FEMINISM IN THE UNITED STATESFEMINISM IN THE UNITED STATES

 

 

 

 

Super BowlSuper Bowl

 

 

 

 

Cities of Unites States

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AMERICAN MUSIC

As every year, we’ve taken some of our students to enjoy a theatre play created by the company Face2Face. We went to Madrid (Teatro Figaro ). 

We had a great time !!!!


CONDITIONALS

(From http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/conditionals.html)

There are four kinds of conditionals:

  • The Zero Conditional:
    (if + present simple, … present simple)
    If you heat water to 100 degrees, it boils.
    Click here to learn more.
  • The First Conditional:
    (if + present simple, … will + infinitive)
    If it rains tomorrow, we’ll go to the cinema.
    Click here to learn more.
  • The Second Conditional:
    (if + past simple, … would + infinitive)
    If I had a lot of money, I would travel around the world.
    Click here to learn more.
  • The Third Conditional
    (if + past perfect, … would + have + past participle)
    If I had gone to bed early, I would have caught the train.
    Click here to learn more.

(Notice we can put ‘if’ at the beginning, or in the middle. It doesn’t matter at all.)

Click here for conditional exercises

MODAL VERBS

Some general information first:

  • They have a unique form, they never change

“He could speak when he was only three years old”

“I could run faster when I was younger” 

  • They have to be followed by an infinitive (except what we call semi-modals: have to, need to, be able to, ought to)

“They must be joking”

“We should visit a doctor once a year”

  • They don’t need an auxiliary verb

“They couldn’t find their way in the darkness”

“May I interrupt you?”

They convey different meaning, you can find in the chart all the information

MODAL VERBS AND THEIR MEANING

And to finish some exercises:

  1. http://esl.fis.edu/grammar/multi/modal1.htm
  2. https://www.usingenglish.com/quizzes/398.html
  3. http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=1859
  4. http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=1859
  5. http://www.focus.olsztyn.pl/en-english-modal-verbs-exercises.html#.WFJ43LLhC1t
  6. http://english-exercise.net/grammar/verb-conjugation/modal-verbs-1/

RELATIVE CLAUSES

In this video you have general information about relative clauses

BASIC ASPECTS

Now, see the differences between defining and non-defining relative clauses

Some explanations  GRAMMAR

Let’s take some practice

 

Predictions/statements of fact

The auxiliary verb will is used in making predictions or simple statements of fact about the future.

  • In the year 2050 all students will have their own computers in school.
  • Will she come soon?
  • You won’t pass your exams if you don’t start working harder.

Intentions

The auxiliary verb going to is used in talking about intentions. (An intention is a plan for the future that you have already thought about.)

  • We’re going to buy a new car next month.
  • I’m not going to watch TV until my science project is finished.
  • Are you going to play basketball after school?

Arrangements

The present continuous tense is used in talking about arrangements. (An arrangement is is a plan for the future that you have already thought about and discussed with someone else.)

  • Sorry, I can’t stay after school today; I‘m playing tennis with Jun-Sik.
  • I‘m not returning home for the holidays, so I can come to your party after all!
  • Are you doing anything on Sunday morning?

Scheduled events

The present simple tense is usually used to refer to future events that are scheduled (and outside of our control).

  • I leave Frankfurt at 5 o’clock in the morning and arrive in New York at midnight the next day.
  • There’s no need to hurry. The train doesn’t leave for another 30 minutes.
  • When does the meeting begin?

Future continuous 

  • Don’t ring at 8 o’clock. I’ll be watching Who Wants to be a Millionaire.
  • This time tomorrow we’ll be sitting on the beach. I can’t wait!

We use the future continuous to talk about something that will be in progress at or around a time in the future.

  • Don’t phone grandma now, she’ll be having dinner.
  • The kids are very quiet. They’ll be doing something wrong, I know it!

Future Perfect

  • Do you think you will have finished it by next Thursday?
  • In 5 years time I’ll have finished university and I’ll be able to earn some money at last.

We use the future perfect to say that something will be finished by a particular time in the future.

We often use the future perfect with ‘by’ or ‘in

  • I think astronauts will have landed on Mars by the year 2020.
  • I’ll have finished in an hour and then you can use the computer.